The airspace above any country is split up into various regions and areas, each controlled by a different controller – so you have a chart to tell you who to speak to in each. To keep transmissions short and unambiguous you learn to use standard words and phrases. You have to know how to contact the controllers and how to give them position reports (aireps). You need to learn the phonetic alphabet, and to identify Morse beacons � no, you don’t need to learn the Morse code. Distress and urgency signals – Mayday and Pan respectively need to be understood as well as half a dozen Q codes. Then there is a bit about direction finding using ADF and VOR and a brief look at radio waves and the basics of transmitters and receivers. Again all easy stuff.